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Types of Doctors and Their Specialty

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About one million doctors or physicians practice in the United States. There are various types and specialties of doctors’ jobs. People simply call them doctors. But most of them have special expertise in one or more types of medicine or specialty. There so many specialties and subspecialties of medical science. Here, you will have an idea of the mentionable types of doctors.

Types of Doctors

The most mentionable types of doctors are as follows:

  1. Family Physician
  2. Pediatrician
  3. Internal Medicine Physician/Internist
  4. Surgeon
  5. Gynecologist/Obstetrician
  6. Cardiologist
  7. Psychiatrist
  8. Endocrinologist
  9. Gastroenterologist
  10. Nephrologist
  11. Urologist
  12. Neurologist
  13. Ophthalmologist
  14. ENT Specialist/ Otolaryngologist
  15. Dermatologist
  16. Pulmonologist
  17. Infectious Disease Physician
  18. Radiologist
  19. Anesthesiologist
  20. Allergist/Immunologist
  21. Critical Care Medicine Specialist
  22. Colon and Rectal Surgeon
  23. Emergency Medicine Specialist
  24. Geriatric Medicine Specialist
  25. Hematologist
  26. Hospice and Palliative Medicine Specialist
  27. Medical Genetics
  28. Osteopaths
  29. Pathologist
  30. Podiatrists
  31. Physiatrists
  32. Plastic Surgeon
  33. Preventive Medicine Specialist
  34. Rheumatologist
  35. Oncologist
  36. Sports Medicine Specialist
  37. Sleep Medicine Specialist

Family Physician:

Family medicine is a primary medical care specialty. Family physicians see all ages’ patients. They give basic care for various common ailments. Generally, they are the first to identify primary health problems. They may also order diagnostic tests. Sometimes, they refer patients to a specialist.


Pediatricians see younger patients, generally from infants to teenagers. They give basic health care to babies and children, consisting of well-baby checks, school physicals, immunizations, and treatment of colds, coughs, stomach flu, and the like. More complicated and serious patients are referred for specialized treatment to any pediatric sub-specialist. 

Internal Medicine Physician/ Internist:

Internists are primary-care doctors who treat common as well as complex illnesses, generally only in adults. Sometimes, they can also have additional training in any host of subspecialties such as cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology, cancer, or sleep or adolescent medicine. You will generally visit them or a family doctor at first for any illness.


Surgeons are trained either in general surgery or in a more specific field of surgery e.g. cardiac surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, vascular surgery, and so on. Surgeons plan a surgical procedure. They operate in the operation theater. Then follow up postoperatively for identifying complications and for confirming that the procedure was successful. Generally, the training for becoming a surgeon is quite longer than primary care training.


Gynecologists or obstetricians specialize in women’s reproductive health. They give women preventive care, handle pregnancy, labor, and delivery. They diagnose and treat reproductive organs’ diseases. They are also specialized in health issues of women like hormone problems, contraception, infertility, and menopause.


Internal medicine has many sub-specialties. Cardiology is one of these sub-specialties. Cardiologists concentrate on heart’s and its blood vessels’ treatment. Moderately extensive training is required to become a cardiologist. A doctor needs to complete three years’ internal medicine residency and then he requires certain years of fellowship.


Psychiatrists treat behavioral and emotional problems combining psychoanalysis, personal counseling or psychotherapy, medication, and hospitalization. Psychiatrists can be hospital-based, office-based, or a blend of the two. Psychiatry has many different areas of specialization e.g. addiction medicine psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, or older people psychiatry.


Endocrinology is one of the sub-specialties of internal medicine. An endocrinologist treats the endocrine system. This system is composed of the glands producing and secreting hormones that regulate and control almost all of the functions of the body. An endocrinologist often treats people with thyroid disease or diabetes.


Gastroenterology is also one of the sub-specialties of internal-medicine. A gastroenterologist treats the digestive system. This specialty attracts doctors who like doing procedures, and also seeing patients in an outdoor setting.


Nephrologists treat people with kidney disease. They prescribe dialysis for patients who are experiencing renal or kidney failure. These doctors are trained in internal medicine. Then they require an extra 2 to 3 years of fellowship training for sub-specializing in nephrology.


Urologists are surgeons caring for men and women having problems in the urinary tract, such as a leaky bladder. They perform prostate exams and treat male infertility too.


Neurologists treat people with medical problems affecting the nerves, spine, and brain. They take care of people with complex medical diseases, such as neuropathy, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. They also see patients having common problems like dizziness and migraine headaches.


Ophthalmologists are physicians who treat disorders or diseases of the eyes like conjunctivitis, glaucoma, and cataracts. They also do eye surgery when required. Sometimes, optometrists cannot treat some vision corrections. Ophthalmologists can treat those vision corrections.

ENT Specialist/ Otolaryngologist:

ENT specialists are also called otolaryngologists or otorhinolaryngologists. ENT stands for ear, nose, and throat. Otolaryngology is an area that combines office-based treatment and medicine and surgical skills. ENTs take care of many issues such as allergies, sinus problems, neck and head cancers, and many more. That’s why many doctors sub-specialize in a particular field of otolaryngology.


Dermatology is among the most competitive areas for doctors. Generally, dermatology residency programs accept only the top medical students. Because these doctors are very well-paid due to cash-pay elective and aesthetic procedures e.g. laser treatments, Botox, and more. Again, their quality of life is excellent than the doctors of other specialties, with little to no on-call needed because of the work’s nature.


Pulmonologists take care of the cardio-pulmonary system. This system includes lungs and heart, the organs working together to aid an individual to breathe. Pulmonologists are often trained in critical care medicine along with pulmonary diseases.

Infectious Disease Physician:

Infectious disease physicians take care of infections that are difficult to diagnose or treat. Infectious disease is internal medicine’s other sub-specialty. Infectious disease doctors treat serious infections like bird flu, swine flu, HIV/AIDS, and different communicable diseases.


Radiologists are trained in analyzing and interpreting diagnostic tests.


An anesthesiologist is trained to control patient pain and observe vital signs during surgery. Sometimes, they manage sudden breathing complications, cardiac arrest, and other medical emergencies in the health center or hospital.


Allergists/immunologists take care of immune system disorders like eczema, asthma, insect sting allergies, food allergies, and certain autoimmune diseases.

Critical Care Medicine Specialist:

A critical care medicine specialist cares for patients who are critically injured or ill.

Colon and Rectal Surgeon:

People consult these doctors for complications in their colon, bottom, and small intestine. They treat inflammatory bowel disease, hemorrhoids, and colon cancer. They can perform a colonoscopy and all other tests for colon cancer too.

Emergency Medicine Specialist:

Emergency medicine specialists make crucial decisions (life-or-death) for injured and sick people, generally in an emergency room. They try heart and soul for saving lives and for avoiding or lowering the probabilities of disability.

Geriatric Medicine Specialist:

Geriatric medicine specialists treat the elderly. They treat patients in doctors’ offices, their own homes, hospitals, nursing homes, and assisted-living centers.


Hematologists specialize in diseases or disorders of the blood, lymph glands, and spleens, such as anemia, leukemia, hemophilia, and sickle cell disease.

Hospice and Palliative Medicine Specialist:

These doctors take care of people who are close to death. They are specialized in managing pain. They along with a team of other physicians work to keep your life’s quality.

Medical Genetics:

Generally, these doctors diagnose and cure hereditary diseases inherited from parents to offspring. These doctors can also offer screening tests and genetic counseling.


Osteopaths are just like MDs who are completely licensed doctors. Their study and training emphasize on a “whole body” perspective. They apply the latest technologies of medicine as well as the human body’s natural capability to heal itself.


Pathologists identify the diseases’ causes by testing body fluids and tissues under microscopes.


Podiatrists treat your problems in feet and ankles. These problems include injuries from sports or accidents or diseases like diabetes and other skin diseases in feet and ankles.


Physiatrists specialize in physical therapy, medicine, and rehabilitation. They treat back or neck pain, spinal cord or sports injuries and also other disabilities due to diseases or accidents.

Plastic Surgeon:

Plastic surgeons are also called cosmetic surgeons. They repair or rebuild your face, skin, breasts, hands, or body. This can happen after a disease or an injury or for cosmetic causes.

Preventive Medicine Specialist:

Preventive medicine specialists concentrate on keeping patients well. They can work at hospitals or in public health. Some concentrate on treating patients with addictions, sickness from exposure to chemicals, drugs, poisons, and other sectors.


Rheumatologists are specialists in arthritis and other diseases in human bones, muscles, joints, and tendons. They treat patients with back pain, osteoporosis (weak bones), and gout, tendinitis from repetitive injuries, or sports, and fibromyalgia.


Oncologists treat patients with cancer as well as with symptoms of cancer. Sometimes, oncologists participate in clinical trials, applying experimental and new treatments for cancer which are otherwise incurable.

Sports Medicine Specialist:

Sports medicine specialists prevent, diagnose, and treat injuries related to exercise and sports.

Sleep Medicine Specialist:

Sleep medicine specialists diagnose and treat the reasons behind patients’ poor sleep.


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